Bruni L, Diaz M, Castelsague X, Ferrer E, Bosch F, de Sanjose S, et al. Cervical human papillomavirus prevalence in 5 continents: meta-analysis of 1 million women with normal cytological findings. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1789–99.
Kelly RS, Patnick J, Kitchener HC, Moss SM. HPV testing as a triage for borderline or mild dyskaryosis on cervical cytology: results from the Sentinel Sites study. Br J Cancer. 2011;105:983–8.
Massad LS, Einstein M, Huh W, Katki H, Kinney W, Schiffman M, et al. 2012 updated consensus guidelines for the management of abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors. J Low Genit Trac Dis. 2013;17:S1–27.
Public Health England. NHS CSP Publication 20. Cervical Screening: programme and colposcopy management. Third Edition (14th March 2016). Cervical screening: programme and colposcopy management – GOV.UK (www.gov.uk). Accessed 26 October 2021.
Castanon A, Landy R, Brocklehurst P, Evans H, Peebles D, Singh N, et al. Risk of preterm delivery with increasing depth of excision for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in England: nested case-control study. BMJ. 2014;349:g6223.
Baldauf JJ, Dreyfus M, Ritter J, Meyer P, Philippe E. Risk of cervical stenosis after large loop excision or laser conization. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;88:933–8.
Suh-Burgmann EJ, Whall-Strojwas D, Chang Y, Hundley D, Goodman A. Risk factors for cervical stenosis after loop electrocautery excision procedure. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96:657–60.
Manley KM, Simms B, Platt S, Patel A, Bahl R. Unsatisfactory colposcopy: clinical decision-making in conditions of uncertainty. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2017;17:125.
Manley KM, Wills AK, Crouch N, Lopez Bernal A, Patel A, Current practices in the management of a type 3 transformation zone: results of a UK survey. Abstract. Cardiff: The British Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology Annual Scientific Meeting; 2017.
Manley KM, Wills AK, Morris GC, Hogg JL, Lopez-Bernal A, Murdoch JB. The impact of HPV cervical screening on negative large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ): a comparative cohort study. Gynecol Oncol. 2016;141:485–91.
Pretorius RG, Zhang W, Belinson JL, Huang M, Wu L, Zhang X, et al. Colposcopically directed biopsy, random cervical biopsy, and endocervical curettage in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II or worse. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;191:430–4.
Williams DL, Dietrich C, McBroom J. Endocervical curettage when colposcopic examination is satisfactory and normal. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:801–3.
Franco EL, Villa LL, Sobrinho JP, Prado JM, Rousseau MC, Desy M, et al. Epidemiology of acquisition and clearance of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women from a high-risk area for cervical cancer. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:1415–23.
Molano M, den Brule A, Plummer M, Weiderpass E, Posso H, Arslan A, et al. Determinants of clearance of human papillomavirus infections in Colombian women with normal cytology: a population-based, 5-year follow-up study. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158:486–94.
Galgano MT, Castle PE, Atkins KA, Brix WK, Nassau SR, Stoler MH. Using biomarkers as objective standards in the diagnosis of cervical biopsies. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:1077–87.
von Knebel Doeberitz M. New markers for cervical dysplasia to visualise the genomic chaos created by aberrant oncogenic papillomavirus infections. Eur J Cancer. 2002;38:2229–42.
Wentzensen N, Schwartz L, Zuna R, Smith K, Mathews C, Gold M, et al. Performance of p16/Ki-67 immunostaining to detect cervical cancer precursors in a colposcopy referral population. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:4154–62.
Schmidt D, Bergeron C, Denton K, Ridder R. European CINtec Cytology Study Group). p16/ki-67 dual-stain cytology in the triage of ASCUS and LSIL Papanicolaou cytology: results from the European equivocal or mildly abnormal Papanicolaou cytology study. Cancer Cytopathol. 2011;119:158–66.
Loghavi S, Walts AE, Bose S. CINtec(R) PLUS dual immunostain: a triage tool for cervical pap smears with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Diagn Cytopathol. 2013;41:582–7.
Waldstrom M, Christensen RK, Ornskov D. Evaluation of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 dual stain in comparison with an mRNA human papillomavirus test on liquid-based cytology samples with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Cancer Cytopathol. 2013;121:136–45.
Kelly RS, Patnick J, Kitchener HC, Moss SM, for the NHSCSP HPV Special Interest Group. HPV testing as a triage for borderline or mild dyskaryosis on cervical cytology: results from the Sentinel Sites Study. Br J Cancer. 2011;105:983–8
Jordan J, Arbyn M, Martin-Hirsch P, Schenck U, Balduff JJ, da Silva D, et al. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for clinical management of abnormal cervical cytology, part 1. Cytopathology. 2008;19:342–54.
Stillson T, Knight AL, Elswick RK Jr. The effectiveness and safety of two cervical cytologic techniques during pregnancy. J Fam Pr. 1997;45:159–63.
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Induction of Labour at Term in Older Mothers: Scientific Impact Paper No. 34. 2013. www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/sip34/. Accessed 27 October 2021.
Public Health England. Cervical screening: primary HPV screening implementation. Appendix 2: Cervical Screening Colposcopy Management Recommendation Algorithms. 2019. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/cervical-screening-primary-hpv-screening-implementation#history. Accessed 27 November 2020.
Eisenberger D, Hernandez E, Tener T, Atkinson BF. Order of endocervical and ectocervical cytologic sampling and the quality of the Papanicolaou smear. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;90:755–8.
Zhao C, Austin RM. Human papillomavirus DNA detection in ThinPrep Pap test vials is independent of cytologic sampling of the transformation zone. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;107:231–5.
Denton KJ, Herbert A, Turnbull LS, Waddell C, Desai MS, Rana DN, et al. The revised BSCC terminology for abnormal cervical cytology. Cytopathology. 2008;19:137–57.
Lesnikova I, Lidang M, Hamilton-Dutoit S, Koch J. p16 as a diagnostic marker of cervical neoplasia: a tissue microarray study of 796 archival specimens. Diagnostic Pathol. 2009;4:22–28.
Van Niekerk D, Guillaud M, Matisic J, Benedet J, Freeberg JA, Follen M, et al. p16 and MIB1 improve the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: methodological issues in a report of 447 biopsies with consensus diagnosis and HPV HCII testing. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;107:S233–40.
NHS CSP Cervical Screening Programme, England. Statistics for 2019-20. Published 26th November 2020. England: Cervical Screening Programme, 2019-20. www.digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/cervical-screening-annual/england—2019-20. Accessed 17 May 2021.
Cancer Research UK. Cervical Cancer Incidence Statistics. Cervical cancer|Cancer Research UK. www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/statistics-by-cancer-type/cervical-cancer/incidence. Accessed 18 May 2021.
Mercer CH, Tanton C, Prah P, Erens B, Sonnenberg P. Clifton Soazig. Changes in sexual attitudes and lifestyles in Britain through the life course and over time: findings from the National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal). Lancet. 2013;382:1781–94.
Nakamura Y, Matsumoto K, Satoh T, Nishide K, Nozue A, Shimabukuro K, et al. HPV genotyping for triage of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results: a multicenter prospective study. Int J Clin Oncol. 2015;20:974–81.
Khan M, Castle P, Lorincz A, Wacholder S, Sherman M, Scott D, et al. The elevated 10-year risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 and the possible utility of type-specific HPV testing in clinical practice. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:1072–9.
Peralta R, Vargas-de-Leon C, Cabrera A, Miramontes P. Dynamics of high-risk nonvaccine human papillomavirus types after actual vaccination scheme. Comput Math Methods Med. 2014;542923:1–8.
Hellsten C, Sjostrom K, Lindqvist PG. A prospective Swedish cohort study on psychosocial factors influencing anxiety in women referred for colposcopy. BJOG. 2007;114:32–8.
Bonevski B, Sanson-Fisher R, Girgis A, Perkins J. Women’s experiences of having a colposcopic examination: self-reported satisfaction with care, perceived needs and consequences. J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;18:462–70.
Gray NM, Sharp L, Cotton SC, Masson LF, Little J, Walker LG, et al. Psychological effects of a low-grade abnormal cervical smear test result: anxiety and associated factors. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:1253–62.
Manley KM, Wills AK, Villeneuve N, Hunt K, Patel A, Glew S. Comparison of the Cervex-Brush alone to Cytobrush plus Cervex-Brush for detection of cervical dysplasia in women with a transformation zone type 3. Cytopathol. 2019;30:157–63.
Bergeron C, Ikenberg H, Sideri M, Denton K, Bogers J, Schmidt D, et al. Prospective evaluation of p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology for managing women with abnormal Papanicolaou cytology: PALMS study results. Cancer Cytopathol. 2015;123:373–81.
Boonstra H, Aalders JG, Koudstaal J, Oosterhuis JW, Janssens J. Minimum extension and appropriate topographic position of tissue destruction for treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;75:227–31.
Mangham LJ, Petrou S, Doyle LW, Draper ES, Marlow N. The cost of preterm birth throughout childhood in England and Wales. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e312–27.
Davey DD, Cox JT, Austin RM, Birdsong G, Colgan TJ, Howell LP, et al. Cervical cytology specimen adequacy: patient management guidelines and optimizing specimen collection. J Low Genit Trac Dis. 2008;12:71–81.